The Paradise Valley Model A Ford Club (PVMAFC), was founded in 1960, and serves the Model A Ford hobbyists in the Inland Empire area of Southern California. PVMAFC is a chapter of the Model A Ford Club of America (MAFCA), is a non-profit organization whose purpose is to serve as a medium in the exchange of ideas, information and parts for enthusiasts of the Model A Ford, and to aid members and other enthusiasts in their efforts to restore and preserve the car in its original likeness. The Steering Column is the newsletter of the PVMAFC, published monthly. The organization disclaims any liability for the technical information provided herein. The material published is the opinions of the authors and not those of the organization. We invite all those interested in the Model A Ford to join us. Ownership of a Model A Ford is not required. Membership includes a subscription to the newsletter. Material in the Steering Column may be used in other publications provided credit is given for the source.